Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers – but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but “we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the “Ruby on Rails” language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn – how to think logically through a problem and organize the results – apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets ,in their offices, in their homes –for the rest of their lives, The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want –the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that –the better.
21.Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to _______
A. complete future job training
B. remodel the way of thinking
C. formulate logical hypotheses
D. perfect artwork production
22.In delivering lessons for high - schoolers , Flatiron has considered their________
C. career prospects
D. academic backgrounds
23.Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will ________
A . help students learn other computer languages
B .have to be upgraded when new technologies come
C .need improving when students look for jobs
D. enable students to make big quick money
24.According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to ______
A. bring forth innovative computer technologies
B. stay longer in the information technology industry
C. become better prepared for the digitalized world
D. compete with a future army of programmers
25.The word “coax”(Line4,Para.6) is closest in meaning to ________
【解析】观点题。根据题干Cortina holds回文定位在第二段。第二段指出Cortina认为过早的接触电脑是有益的，紧接着指出当小孩子学习电脑科学，他们就学习了如何去开发手机应用程序，或者创作艺术，或者验证假设。对于他们来说与大孩子相比，改变思维并不难。综上所述，[B]remodel the way of thinking是对原文"transform their thought"的同义置换。
【解析】事实细节题。根据题干关键信息"in delivering lessons for high-schoolers"、"Flatiron has considered"，定位到第三段。整个第三段在叙述Flatiron School。其中，第三行The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but "we try to gear lessons toward things they're interested in"(高中生们上同样的课程，但是"我们力图以他们的兴趣来调整课程")，表明了该校开设课程的依据是"学生的兴趣"，故选[B] interest。
【解析】细节题。根据Deborah Seehorn 定位到文章第五段最后一句。Deborah说他们学习的技能(如何思考问题具有逻辑性并组织结果)可以应用到编码语言中去。选项[A]帮助学生学习另外的电脑语言是对这句话的概括。
【解析】推理题。根据题干关键词"the last paragraph"和"Flatiron students"回文定位在最后一段。最后一段第一句指出Flatiron的学生不会全都进入IT界。紧接着第二句说明培养编码人员不是唯一目的，第三句进一步指出这些学生将会一生"被电脑包围"(生活在电脑时代)，对比四个所给选项，[C] become better prepared for the digitalized world与原文意思一致，故正确。
【解析】词义题。根据题干关键信息"coax"(Line 4, Para.6)，定位到最后一段第四行how to coax the machine into producing what they want(如何…电脑生产他们想要的)，且该部分是与how computers think(电脑是如何思维的)并列的，都是学生学习的具体内容。正是因为两者并列，因此根据单词think可知coax同样含有一定比喻色彩，且coax指的是"让电脑生产他们想要的"一种手段或方式。persuade"劝说，劝诱"，即"劝诱电脑生产他们想要的"，语意恰当，是正确选项，本题正确答案为[A] persuade。
Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands—once lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species 'historic range.
The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened .“The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation ,”said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats .But Ashe and others argued that the” threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action. and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken's habitat.
Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range—wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat .The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat , USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years .And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species,” Ashe said.
Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric. Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court. Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough. “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction, ” says biologist Jay Lininger.
26.The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____.
[A]its drastically decreased population
[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
[D]the insistence of private landowners
27.The“threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____.
[A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
[B]would involve fewer agencies in action
[C]granted less federal regulatory power
[D]went against conservation policies
28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____.
[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in______.
[A]the federal government
[B]the wildlife agencies
30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______.
[B]the win-win rhetoric
[D]the plan under challenge
【解析】本题属于细节题，考查了考生对文章首段中关于草原鸡数量的变化的理解。根据对首段首句当中生物学家预测的数量是2百万，而在首段末句出现but转折以及末句当中关于草原鸡现在真实的剩余数量只有2万2千只，都可以说明草原鸡的数量急剧的下降；另外，这道题还有一种做法是通过第二段首句的主语的作用，某些情况下，文章中间段落的首句主语起到承上启下的作用，那么中间段落首句主语就会有概括上一段的作用，本文第二段的首句：The crash was a main reason USFWS decided to formally list the bird as threatened. 就是对第26题题干和正确选项的同义替换，根据第二段第一句的主语：the crash (这种暴跌)，对应正确选项A。
【解析】本题属于推理题，根据题干信息：the "Threatened"tag 令许多环境学家感到失望，定位到第二段的第三句，因此，原因应该出自第三句之后，而第四句和第五句中间有很明显的转折词but,因此答案定位在第五句，很多同学可能会问，这里并没有表示原因的词去与题干当中的in that进行对应，但是在我们的钻石卡的课程中提到，原文当中给出原因的并不一定是直接给出表示原因的连词或者介词，在本文第三句的but Ashe and others argued that the "threatened" tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservation approaches. 当中的gave这个词是"使得"的意思，A使得B如何如何，也就是A是B的原因，因此这道题的答案是D (违反了保护措施)。
【解析】本题属于推理题，根据题干当中给出的位置信息(第三段)以及表示条件与结果的逻辑关系的if这个信息，可以迅速定位到第三段的第一句，其中题干当中的if与文章当中的as long as 进行对应，而题干当中的表示结果的部分与as long as 之前进行对应，因此，正确选项应该出自as long as 之后，也就是原文当中的：they had signed a range-wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. "签订一系列管理计划去恢复草原鸡的栖息地"，对应到的正确选项是B (volunteer to set up an equally big habitat 帮助搭建同样大小的栖息地)。
【解析】本题属于细节题。答案定位在文章第三段最后一句，从Ashe所说的话中"states remain in the driver's seat for managing the species"可以得出，选项D the states在管理物种方面起着领导作用。